Personality types A and B are hardly strict psychological categories—the theory was actually penned by two cardiologists—but for years people have used the simple framework to describe their temperament. If you don't identify as a competitive, organized type A or a laid-back, creative type B, you might fall into a newly penned third category.
People who are type R "accept—and even welcome—change, failure, and disruption" and use the experience as a catalyst for personal growth, say leadership consultants Ama Marston and Stephanie Marston. The mother-daughter duo coined the term in their book, Type R: Transformative Resilience for Thriving in a Turbulent World, and suggest type R personalities offer insight about how to turn stress and adversity into opportunity.
"By the time we've been through something difficult, whether as job seekers or leaders, or even as whole communities and nations, we've often been changed by the experience," Ama Marston tells Business Insider. "It's up to us to tip that change to our advantage and learn from it. That's a fundamental part of being a type R—looking at challenges and seeing opportunities."
She says Steve Jobs is a perfect example of someone who showed type R character traits later in their career. After being fired from Apple, he reframed the experience in a Stanford University graduation speech and said, "I didn't see it then, but it turned out that getting fired was the best thing that could ever have happened to me. … It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life."
Curious to know if you're type R? Take Marston's quiz to find out.