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There are various signs of intelligence—some measurable, some far less concrete. But perhaps one of the most fickle signs of intelligence is a tendency to underestimate your own abilities, according to a Cornell University study by David Dunning and Justin Kruger. Dubbed the "Dunning-Kruger effect," this theory contends that those who are self-aware and thoughtful enough to realize their own limitations are often more intelligent than the average person.
To that end, there are many unusual signs of intelligence that may serve as a comfort for those trapped by self-doubt. Business Insider recently analyzed a variety of scientific studies on the subject, uncovering some surprising realizations in the process. Without further ado, the following characteristics could indicate that you're more intelligent than you think:
You're a worrier
While rumination and excessive anxiety are mostly regarded as negative traits, 2014 research published in Personality and Individual Differences may indicate otherwise. Researchers Alexander Penney and Victoria Miedema found a connection between worry and verbal intelligence, or the ability to analyze and solve problems via language-based reasoning, such as writing, reading, conversing, or even listening.
You took music lessons
According to a 2004 study and a 2013 study from University of Toronto psychology professor Glenn Schellenberg, 6-year-olds who took nine months of keyboard or singing lessons ended up with a higher IQ than those who took drama lessons or no creative classes at all. He also found that high-achieving kids were most likely to take music lessons, suggesting that musical training can enhance pre-existing cognitive differences at an early age.
You're an introvert
Contrary to popular belief, research from Singapore Management University and London School of Economics found that hyper-intelligent people need more alone time. While this in no way discounts the idea that socializing leads to greater feelings of happiness, it definitely sheds a more positive light on introversion overall.
Head over to Business Insider for the remaining signs of intelligence, and share your thoughts on this research below!