In her book, Lean In, Sandberg argues that internal obstacles are what hold women back. “We lower our own expectations of what we can achieve,” Sandberg writes. In her argument, Sandberg references the Howard/Heidi case study in which two professors wrote up a case study of a real-life entrepreneur named Heidi Roizen. In one class, the entrepreneur was given then name Howard, while in the other class, her name remained Heidi. While students found both Howard and Heidi to be equally successful, they found Howard to be far more likable and Heidi to be selfish and “the type of person you would not want to work for.” This perfectly illustrates how gender causes professional achievements to be seen differently in men and women.
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